ELECTRONIC ORGANS

(Updated 18th May 2006)

ABOUT ME 

 Greetings to all organ lovers!  My name is Frank Pugno and I started this site in 2003 to fill a void that was on the Internet.  If you were looking for information about Hammond tone wheel organs, pipe organs and reed organs, you would find hundreds of thousands of sites, but very little about anything else.  The electronic organ is here to stay and I felt that more information was needed about all electronic organs and the people who play them. 

                I was born in the early 1950s and raised in southwest and western suburbs of Chicago.  At the age of 12, I began study of the organ and started my first job two years later.  I am now an active organist in the Chicago metropolitan area.  My experiences include television and radio appearances, the Governor’s Mansion in Illinois, appeared before President Jimmy Carter and five Chicago Mayors.  I have also performed at such Chicago venues as the Daley Center, the John Hancock Building, Navy Pier and the Museum of Science and Industry.  My church work has been extensive over the years in both organ playing and choir directing.  I also have worked in data processing. 

                This site has grown in recent years and I would like to thank everybody who has contributed to it.  Special thanks to Bill Reid who carries out the updates and has added an international organist section.  Contributions to this site are welcome.  I only ask that there be no copyright infringements. 

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                 I am including here a sample of my playing Plantation Boogie in MP3 format.

Plantation Boogie Played by Frank Pugno (mp3 @ 64kbps)

If you have trouble playing this file from a left click, use a right click and  'Save target as' to your hard drive.

Frank at the Allen GW IV Theatre Signature Organ

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This link is about the electronic organ.  Pictures and historical contributions are welcome, but please, no copyrighted material.  None of the information herein is official and neither the organ companies nor their modern parent companies were consulted. 

The question arises “What’s the difference between an electric and electronic organ?”  In an electronic organ, the tone generators consist of vacuum tubes, transistors or chips.  An electric organ uses anything else, generally phonic wheels or reeds.  Both types of organ use electronics for the amplification.  All of these have generically been called electronic organs. 

Allen Organ (New 31. 10. 05)

The Allen Organ was invented by Jerome Markowitz and released to the public in 1939.  These independent oscillator organs found their way into many churches because of their tonal similarity to pipe organs.  In 1971, Allen introduced the world’s first digital organ. 

Baldwin Organ (New 18. 10. 06)

This master oscillator organ came out in 1947 as the Model 11. 

Conn Organ    (New 18. 11. 05)

Charles G. Conn, a noted Indiana figure, founded C.G. Conn, Ltd. in Elkhart, Indiana in 1875.  The company was noted for its line of famous band instruments.  Their first electronic organ came out in 1947, and their first successful model was introduced in 1951.  Conn was an independent oscillator organ. 

Gulbransen Organ   (New 08. 07. 2004) (Complete make-over 18th May 2006) 

This maverick of the organ industry was founded by Axel Gulbransen in Chicago in 1904, manufacturing pianos and harmoniums. In 1957, Gulbransen introduced the world’s first transistor organ, the Model B, which also included the first built-in Leslie speaker.  Independent tone generators were the rule here.  Gulbransen also introduced the first preset chimes stop, the piano stop and built-in automatic rhythm, among other pioneering innovations.  The Rialto, Model K, was Gulbransen’s greatest and most famous work.  This was the first electronic theatre organ and included two auxiliary Leslie speakers with no internal sound system.  The company was merged with Seeburg in 1966, and C.B.S. absorbed the entire operation in 1968.  Gulbransen is now based in California, in affiliation with Elka, an Italian brand, and manufactures MIDI products. 

Hammond Organ    (31. 03. 05)

The Hammond Model A Organ was released in June, 1935 and used independent tone wheel generators.  It caused a commercial landslide.  In 1955, Hammond came out with the immortal classic, B3.  The B3 included Touch-Response Percussion, the first attack-type percussion on electronic organs and this became standard in the industry.  A model revision in 1965 unveiled the X66, a cross between drawbar design and a theatre organ.  In subsequent years, Hammond went electronic.  So much information about the Hammond Organ is available on the Internet that anything stated here would be repetition.  Type “hammond organ” into your search engine and go.

More on Hammond Organs by Eric Larson. 

Kimball Organ

Kimball started in Chicago, by William Kimball, as a major manufacturer of pipe organs, later manufacturing pianos as well. They eventually made their way into the electric organ field with photoelectric cell organs that were not successful.  In the mid 1960s, the company changed to transistor organs and carved a place for themselves in many homes.   

Lowrey Organ   (New 03. 11. 05)

The Lowrey Organo, an organ-like attachment for a piano, started this company in 1941. Their first successful organ, the Berkshire, Model S, came out in 1955.  The Glide, mounted on the left side of the expression pedal, was introduced in 1956 for Hawaiian guitar and singing strings effects, among others.  Lowrey was successful in breaking Hammond’s overwhelming lead in the industry. 

Rodgers Organ

Rodgers was founded in 1958 and soon after, came out with the first solid-state organ (tone generators and amplifiers, all amplifiers in organs were vacuum tubes previously).  They were of the master oscillator type. 

Technics Organ

This was a division of the Panasonic Corporation. These organs are no longer made.

Thomas Organ   (New Article, with pictures. By Frank Pugno)

This instrument was unveiled in 1957.  Their first models were one manual affairs with dial stops, and some models included a built-in phonograph.  These organs used a two-note generator.  They soon changed to the master oscillator tone generating system.  Standard two manual and pedal organs came on the scene quickly.  Thomas pioneered several firsts in the organ industry; Repeat Percussion which is now standard in organs and Vibra-Magic which others call Delayed Vibrato.  This company is a phoenix as it was resuscitated in recent years.   

Wurlitzer Organ   (New Article by Frank Pugno, 25th September 2005)

This great old company started life in Germany in the 1600s making lutes and violins and produced a full line of band instruments.  Their jukeboxes were well known.  In 1910, Wurlitzer bought out the Robert Hope-Jones Organ Company and the Mighty Wurlitzer theatre pipe organ was born.  After World War II, Wurlitzer began producing electro-static reed organs and started using electronic master oscillators in 1959.  The last reed organ was manufactured in 1964.  The Ssh-Boom, the first “theatre organ traps-style” rhythm was a Wurlitzer innovation.  The Orbit came into existence in the 1970s.  This was a synthesizer built into a substandard third keyboard above the Upper Manual of the organ.

More on Wurlitzer Organs by Eric Larson. 

Yamaha Organ

This brand was introduced to the United States in 1969. 

ORGAN STOPS 

By Frank Pugno 

                One of the chief glories of the organ is its ability to create different sounds to set any mood for the performance of music.  This is done by the careful manipulation of the tone controls, properly called stops.  A combination of stops is called a registration.

                Organ history goes back to 2,000 B. C.  The first organs only had about 14 “keys” and all the pipes for each note played simultaneously.  As time progressed, small levers were added so the organist could turn off or “stop” any particular pipes from playing.  This is where the term stop came from.  France, in the 1300s, reinvented them that normally the pipes did not play until the particular controls were turned on.  Now they should be named “goes”, but the term stops was retained.

                Whether an organ has four or four hundred stops, all of the stops fall into one of four families of tone: 

Flute (or Tibia) – this is the most important family for the entertainment and home organist.  It is available at all pitches and has a rather bland sound that mixes in well with other voices. Various combinations of flutes and vibrato create familiar organ sounds.

String – these stops are the opposite of flutes.  The string is a very cutting, biting sound.  String tone can cut right through a very full registration with its keen brightness.  When the 8’ string is played  high on the Swell manual with full vibrato and softly, it closely resembles a violin.  Drop down one octave and you hear a viola.  Around Middle C, it sounds like a cello.  Three voices and you never changed the stops!

Reed – these are the “fun stops” of the organ!  This division consists of the brass and woodwinds of
the orchestra, plus unique organ voices.  Some of the common ones are Clarinet, Trumpet, Oboe,
Trombone and French Horn.  The Kinura is from the old theatre organs and resembles “a bee
 buzzing in a bottle”.  The Wah-Wah Trumpet is a reed, but is really considered a special effect.

Diapason – this is the most important sound in the organ as opposed to the flutes, which have this position of eminence in entertainment.  The diapason is the REAL sound of the organ as handed down through the generations.  The diapason has a church pipe organ quality and may also create stirring theatre organ sound.  It can also be used to fill in other combinations adding richness. 

The numbers on the stops are the organist’s unit of measure, indicating the highness or lowness of a stop.  If a stop is marked Principal 16’, it means that the pipe needed to produce the lowest note for this diapason stop is sixteen feet high.  Here is a table of the most common pitches:

8’ – unison (piano, orchestra) pitch.  Plays same note as written.
4’ – one octave higher.
2’ – two octaves higher.
1’ – three octaves higher.
16’ – one octave lower.
5-1/3’ – a fifth higher.
2-2/3’ – one octave and a fifth higher.
1-3/5’ – two octaves and a third higher.
1-1/3’ – two octaves and a fifth higher.

There are also Mixture stops that add upper harmonics to the main ensemble tones. 

Drawbar organs make available these footages selectively with each at a volume determined by the organist to create a great multitude of sounds.  Several manufacturers have drawbar organs, but this document will concern itself with the standard Hammond organ design, which a few others adopted.  My suggested registrations will include drawbar settings. 

The standard manual drawbars are 16’, 5-1/3’, 8’, 4’, 2-2/3’, 2’, 1-3/5’, 1-1/3’ and 1’ with two drawbars, 16’ and 8’ for the pedals. 

NOTE:  The Hammond H-100, X-66 and X-77 have additional drawbars controlling 2- rank mixtures.  The first is 1-1/7’ and 8/9’, which, should be pulled out no further than the 1-3/5’ drawbar.  The second is 4/5’ and 2/3’, which should be no further out than the 1’ drawbar.  These organs also have extra pedal drawbars for fuller tone. 

Frank Pugno’s Library of Registrations
Flutes and tibias are interchangeable.  If your organ has tibias, use them in place of flutes.
Drawbar organ translation in parenthesis.
 

Entertainment Organ
Swell:  Flutes 16’, 8’, 4’, 2’, 1’ (80 8808 008)
Great:  Flutes 8’, 4’, Diapason 8’, Horn 8’ (00 8865 544)
Pedal:  Bourdon 16’, Flute 8’, Pedal Sustain (75)
Vibrato:  Full or Leslie Tremolo (V-3 or Vibrato Normal or Acoustic Tremolo On, Fast) 

Church Organ
Swell:  Flutes 8’, 4’, 2’ (00 8806 000)
Great:  Diapason 8’, Octave 4’, Doublette 2’, Mixture (00 8868 068)
Pedal:  Diapason 16’, Octave 8’ (86)
Vibrato:  Off, Leslie Chorale (Off, Acoustic Tremolo On, Slow) 

Jazz Organ (Jimmy Smith Style)
Swell:  Bourdon 16’, Flute 8’, Quint 5-1/3’, Percussion 2-2/3’, Fast Decay
            (88 8000 000, Percussion On, Soft, Fast, Third or Harmonic 3, Fast Decay)

Great:  Flute 8’ (00 8000 000)
Pedal:  Off
Vibrato:  Off (Chorus 3)
Theatre Organ Tibias
Swell:  Flute 16’, 8’, 2’ (80 8008 000)
Great:  Flute 8’, 4’, Cello 8’ (00 6644 322)
Pedal:  Bourdon 16’, Flute 8’, Pedal Sustain (54)
Vibrato:  Full or Leslie Tremolo (V-3 or Vibrato Normal or Acoustic Tremolo On, Fast) 

The following are simply how to register solo voices.  Add your own Great and Pedal stops. 

Violin, Viola, Cello
Swell:  Violin 8’ or String 8’ (00 4555 554)
Vibrato:  Full (V-3 or Vibrato Normal) 

Clarinet
Swell:  Clarinet 16’ or 8’ (8’ – 00 8080 800)

For a beautiful effect, add Light Vibrato (V-1 or Vibrato Small) and play in low register. 

Oboe
Swell: Oboe 8’ (00 4676 430)
Vibrato:  Off or Light (Off or V-1 or Vibrato Small) 

Trumpet
Swell:  Trumpet 8’ (00 6876 540)
Vibrato:  Off or Full (Off or V-3 or Vibrato Normal) 

Trombone
Swell:  Trombone 16’ (88 8800 000)
Vibrato:  Full (V-3 or Vibrato Normal) 

French Horn
Great:  French Horn 8’ (00 8740 000)
Vibrato:  Light (V-1 or Vibrato Small)

Vox Humana
Swell:  Vox Humana 8’ or Flute  8’, 4’, Tierce 1-3/5’ (00 6700 800)

Vibrato:  Full or Leslie Tremolo (V-3 or Vibrato Normal or Acoustic Tremolo On, Fast)

Vox-Tibia Theatre CombinationSwell:  Flute 8’, 4’, Vox Humana 8’ (Not available)
Vibrato:  Full or Leslie Tremolo 

Reed-Tibia Theatre Combination
Swell:  Oboe 8’ or Kinura 8’, Flute 4’ (Not available)
Vibrato:  Full

Harmonica
Swell: Violin 8’, Nazard 2-2/3’ (00 3385 221)
Vibrato:  Light (V-1 or Vibrato Small)
Open Diapason
Great:  Diapason 8’ (00 5642 200)

Piano
Swell:  Piano or Diapason 8’ or Trombone 16’ or French Horn 8’, Sustain Medium
            (Percussion On, Normal, Slow, Second, Reverberation III or Piano)

Harpsichord
Swell:  Harpsichord or Violin 8’, Sustain Medium
            (Not available on older models, newer models Harpsichord) 

Glockenspiel
Swell:  Glockenspiel or Glock or Bourdon 16’, Flute 4’, Tierce 1-3/5’, Sustain Short
             (60 0000 800, Percussion On, Normal, Fast, Second or 60 0000 000, 2 and 6 Harmonics, Sustain)

Hawaiian Guitar
Swell:  Hawaiian Guitar or Guitar or Clarinet 8’ or Trumpet 8’ or Flute 8’, String 8’,
            Sustain Long (00 8800 000, Percussion On, Normal, Slow, Second or Guitar)
            Vibrato Full (V-3 or Vibrato Normal) 

Next we will show stops that can be derived from flute pitches when particular voices are not available on an organ.  Except for the percussions, these will naturally have a synthetic tone. 

Clarinet 8’ – Flute 8’, Nazard 2-2/3’, Tierce 1-3/5’
Trumpet 8’ (Cornet V) – Flute 8’, Flute 4’, Nazard 2-2/3’, Piccolo 2’, Tierce 1-3/5’
Oboe 8’ – Flute 4’, Nazard 2-2/3’, Piccolo 2’ (a better one is Violin 8’, Nazard 2-2/3’)
Trombone 16’ – Bourdon 16’, Flute 8’, Quint 5-1/3’, Flute 4’
English Horn 8’ – Flute 8’, Nazard 2-2/3’, Piccolo 2’
Vox Humana 8’ – Flute 8’, Flute 4’, Tierce 1-3/5’, Vibrato Full or Leslie Tremolo
Melodia 8’ – Flute 8’, Flute 4’
Diapason 8’ – Flute 8’, Flute 4’, Nazard 2-2/3’
Glockenspiel – Bourdon 16’, Flute 4’, Tierce 1-3/5’, Sustain Short
Harp – Flute 8’, Sustain Long
Vibraharp – Flute 8’, Flute 4’, Vibrato Full, Sustain Long
Music Box – Flute 4’, Fife 1’, Sustain Long 

This writing about organ stops does not even scratch the surface in the use of organ stops.  It is hoped you gain some knowledge of this and it inspires you to experiment further.  It’s amazing how few organists and even organ teachers understand how the stops work.  Do not be afraid to experiment.  No combination of stops will make the organ explode, so go ahead and try.  If you don’t like the sound, change it.  If you like the sound, write the combinations down so you can use them again.  Above all else, enjoy yourself.  That is what the organ is for.

Famous USA Electronic Organists:

Ken Griffin (New 03. 12. 05)

Born 28 December 1909, Columbia, Missouri.
Died 11 March 1956, Chicago, Illinois – Heart Attack
Hammond Organ/Wurlitzer Organ/Conn Organ
“You Can’t Be True, Dear” - 1948. 

Lenny Dee   (Obituary added 17. 02. 06) (Updated 09.04.06)

Born 5 January 1923, Chicago, Illinois. Died 12th of February 2006.
Hammond Organ
“Plantation Boogie” - 1955 

Ethel Smith   (New article 03. 11. 05) ( 29. 01. 06. Ethel Smith Hammond Purchased + video link)

Born 22 November 1910, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
Died 10 May 1996, Palm Beach, Florida
Hammond Organ
“Tico Tico” - 1944 

Eddie Layton    (New article 12. 12. 05. Updated 06. 03. 06)

Born 1930
Hammond Organ

Recorded one album on a Wurlitzer theatre pipe organ, otherwise he was strictly a Hammond performer.

Jesse Crawford (New Article 16. 12. 05)

Born: 2 December 1895, Woodland, California
Died: 27 May 1962, Los Angeles, California - Cerebral Hemorrhage
Theatre Pipe Organ/Hammond Organ 

George Wright (Web site )

August 28, 1920-May 10, 1998
Theatre Pipe Organ/Conn Organ 

Virgil Fox (Dedication web site )

Classical pipe organist.
Rogers Organs.
Fox's Custom Touring Organ was world famous.

 E. Power Biggs ( Web page)

Classical pipe organist.
Allen Organs.

Jimmy Smith (web site)

Died February 8, 2005 at age 79. 

The foremost American jazz organist.  He made the Hammond B-3 the standard jazz organ. 

Joey DeFrancesco (Web Site)

(1971-   

Joey DeFrancesco is considered to be the finest jazz organist today, his mentor was Jimmy Smith.  His father, “Papa John” is also an organist. 

Jackie Davis

(1920-1999) 

Born 13 Dec 1920.   Died 15  Nov 1999. Jacksonville, Florida.  He was the first musician to popularize jazz on the Hammond organ, well before Jimmy Smith appeared on the scene.  He operated a jazz organ school in Chicago, Illinois. 

  Artie Dunn   (Web Site)

(1922-1996) 

Organist for The Three Suns, he used a Hammond organ.  Their two big hits were Twilight Time and Peg O’ My Heart. 

Floyd Cramer

(1933-1997) 

Famous American country pianist.  He made two records on organ that were not favored in the organ world.  The first was on a Seeburg organ and the second on a Hammond. 

Korla Pandit   (Web Site)

(1921-1998) 

His real name was John Roland, born in Columbia, Missouri and was African-American, though renowned as an “Indian” theatre pipe organist complete with white turban and oval jewel.  He made films in the 1950s on the Hammond organ. 

Perez Prado   (Web Site)

(1916-1989) 

The Mambo King

Perez Prado was a Cuban bandleader whose specialty was the mambo, a fast Cuban rhumba.  Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White was one of his big hits along with Anna.  He used an organ for his hit single Patricia in 1958.  It sounds like a Conn organ. 

John Woodhouse 

Organist from Vienna, Austria. 

Walter Wanderley (Web Site)

(1932-1986) 

Brazilian organist who came to the United States.  His 1966 recording of Summer Samba hit the charts with his lively Latin-jazz flair.  His second hit was The Girl From Ipanema.  He recorded in the U. S. for several years renewing the country’s love of the bossa nova and samba. 

Dave “Baby” Cortez   (Web Site)

(1938- )

Dave Cortez Clowney, AKA Dave “Baby” Cortez, from Detroit, Michigan, recorded the awesome 1957 hit The Happy Organ and Rinky Dink in 1962.  The Happy Organ was recorded on a Lowrey organ, but he later played Hammond. 

Booker T (& the MGs)  (Web Site)

Recorded the 1950s classic Green Onions on the Hammond M-3. 

Milt Hearth 

The first Hammond organist.  He played for WLS-Radio in 1937 when that station was located in Gary, Indiana, it is now in Chicago, Illinois. 

Bob Kames 

Bob Kames has operated a Hammond organ store in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  He made numerous albums starting in the 1950s, but became nationally famous for his 1983 recording of Dance Little Bird (The Chicken Dance).  This was amazing, an organ record popular in the 1980s! 

Gaylord Carter   (ATOS Dedication)

(1905-2000) 

Another of the great theatre organists.  Rudy Vallee purchased one of the first Hammond Model A organs in 1935.  During World War II, Gaylord Carter purchased the organ from Mr. Vallee to play shows for the U.S.O.  After the war.  Mr. Carter recorded many 78 r.p.m. records on it.  This organ was changed to a Model AV, replacing tremulant with vibrato. 

Don Baker

(1903-1989) 

Don Baker was a foremost theatre organist, and did many concerts on the Conn organ.

Merlin 

Merlin, AKA Van Talbert, made an electronic Organ and Chimes Christmas album, probably recorded in the late 1950s. He was known as "The Magic Fingers of Merlin" on his recordings and played on Hammond organs.

Ashley Miller (Web Site)    

(1918-2006) Died on Monday 20th March 2006. 

American theatre organist. He played Hammond on the soap operas Love of Life, Search for Tomorrow and Secret Storm.

Lyn Larsen (Web Site)

(1945-   

Renowned theatre organist who has performed and recorded on many great instruments, including the great Sanfilippo Wurlitzer pipe organ in Barrington, Illinois.  In his early years, he performed as well on Gulbransen, but later moved to Allen.  Allen Organ Company manufactures a digital theatre organ Model LL-324, to Lyn Larsen’s specifications.  

Diane Bish (Web Site) 

Diane Bish is widely known for her television program The Joy of Music, where she played organs from all over the world.  It was reminiscent of E. Power Biggs recording internationally on world famous organs.  She also was the organist at Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.  The Allen Organ Company developed a series of Renaissance model organs to Ms. Bish’s specifications. 

Tom Hazelton (Web Site)

(1942-2006) 

Tom Hazelton was a very active organist in both theatre and church playing.  Having worked with several organ manufacturers as a design consultant, he became a tonal director for the Allen Organ Company. 

Walt Strony (Web Site)

(1955-    ) 

A widely known theatre and classical organist from Chicago, Illinois.  He studied with Al Melgard of the Chicago Stadium, Dr. Herbert L. White and Karel Paukert.  Walt Strony has also concretized for the Allen Organ Company. 

Jonas Nordwall (Web Site) 

Another of the great modern theatre and classical organists he has lived all his life in Portland, Oregon.  He is also a church performer.  At one time, he was a design specialist for the Rodgers Organ Company.

=================================

Organists, famous in their own countries, and Internationally
(This section is by Bill Reid)

George Blackmore

Chatham, Kent, England. Died Feb 24th 1994
Theatre & Electric  Organs.
Resident organist: Capitol & Astoria Cinemas, Aberdeen, Scotland. 1950-1957.
Hammond Organ demonstrator U.K.
Representative for Conn, U.S.A.
Film music. Whistle Down The Wind & Charade.
Signature Tune: Cock O' The North. Composition 'The Highlander'.
Fellow of the Royal College of Organists.

Lost lower part of both legs and was fitted with artificial ones and  returned to play the organ

Bobby Pagan

Paisley, Scotland.
Theatre organs.
Residential organist: Palladium, Copenhagan, Capitol & Astoria cinemas, Aberdeen

Earnest Broadbent

Oldham, England Born 1910. Died 19th January 1994.
Theatre Pipe organs. Gaumont British cinema chain.
BBC and Blackpool Tower.
Resident organist at Regent Wurlitzer, Brighton.
Accompanist to Joseph Locke 1948-52.
Hammond organist at the Tower Lounge, Blackpool.
Resident organist at the Blackpool Tower Wurlitzer 1970-77
Signature Tune, For You.
Lost lower part of both legs but never returned to playing the organ

Charles Smart

Concert & Theatre pipe organs.
BBC Theatre Organ and recording artist.

Harold Smart

Hammond Organ
Son Of Charles Smart. Played Hammond in strict modern dance tempo and virtually with the same settings throughout, which became his own 'sound' and was very popular. He made numerous recordings, stage and radio appearances..

Sandy MacPherson (Web site)

Theatre organs
U. K. Cinema Chains. BBC theatre organs.

Harry Farmer

Born 1912 in Wallsall, West Midnlands, England.  Died 1986. was a well known organist in Edmunton, Huntingdonshire, England. 

William Davies

(1921-2006)

William Arthur Davies, organist, pianist and composer: Born at Bolton, Lancashire, England on the 26th of June 1921. Died at Hastings, East Sussex, England of the  2nd of  March 2006.

An extremely versatile musician. Appeared on BBC musical programmes for many years. Produced many recordings and was a musical arranger, conductor  and composer of numerous tunes and film music.

Lucien Hetu

Canada.
Gulbransen.
Recording artist. Solo and with family

Ahlborn Galanti  (Electronic Church organ)

Built in Italy

Ray Collignon (Update 8th March 2006)

Belgium organist. Strictly Hammond (Strict Tempo Medleys). Also was a band leader.

Klaus Wunderlich 

(1931- 1997) 

Famous German organist.  He played Hammond for many years, but then switched to Wersi.

Discology by Alan Ashoton  www.organ.co.uk/ashton/   www.organfax.co.uk/ashton-online.html
New Double CD set available at http://www.organ.co.uk/

Ashley Tappen - British organist.

 He played at the Piccadilly Gardens in London on the Hammond organ.  Made recordings in the early 1960s, several of them were tributes to Ken Griffin.
 

Heathkit organs

These were kit organs distributed from Michigan, USA.  They were exact duplicates of several Thomas organ models.

Earl Grant:
 American Hammond organist who made regular guest appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show.  His famous recordings were Swingin' Gently, More and Ebb Tide.  He also sang some numbers, and his vocal version of The End (of a Rainbow) was very famous.  He was tragically killed in a car accident in 1970 at the age of 39. Earl was born in 1931 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Died 11th June 1970 Lordsburg, New Mexico.

Larry Ferrari
American Hammond Organist. Radio and Television and numerous recordings.

Cor Steyn
Dutch Hammond Organist. Radio and Television and numerous recordings. 

Bryan Rodwell

New CD available http://www.organ.co.uk/

Kieghley, Yorkshire, England. Died 1995. At home on pipes or electronic. Made his debut aged 10. Played for the ABC Cinema chain and featured at the Ritz, Hereford and, the Granada Clapham, London. He was a demonstrator for Hammond and made recordings on the Hammond 'Concorde' and was Product and Promotions Manager for Boosey & Hawkes.

Raymond Wallbank (Photo Added October 2005)

Played at the North Peir Wurlitzer, Blackpool for 31 years and ocassions at the Tower Wurlitzer. He is a Blackpool organist in the grand tradition of fellows' Earnest Broadbent, Horice Finch and Reginald Dixon.  

Horice Finch

He organist at the Empress Ballroom, Blackpool.  An injury to his hand forced him to take early retirement.  Made a number of 78rpm recordings and was billed as Blackpool's 'Ace' organist.

With thanks toAlan Ashton for corrections to information and typos.

==========================================

If you have any information, pictures, criticism or comments, please email me atorgangrinderfp@sbcglobal.net  I would like this site to be a good reference for the electronic organ, both vintage and modern.  Specific information on styles, stoplists, voicing and other useful information would be greatly appreciated.

N.B. Details of your favourite organists and photographs are welcome but please respect full copyright.

==================================

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